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canker stain plane trees

3) Screw a sterile increment borer tangentially (not radially as usually) to cross at least one necrosis. It forms violet blue stains that are necrotic, and this canker wedges itself in the wood, on the trunk and branches and cut off the sap flow. Until December 2019 the UK had European Union Protected Zone status for plane material to provide extra safeguards against accidental introductions of this disease on imported plane plants or wood. The canker may at first just appear to be a darkened, flattened area on the wood. Infected sycamore and London planes have sparse foliage, small leaves, and elongated sunken cankers on the trunk and larger branches. In Scotland, contact the Scottish Government’s Horticulture & Marketing Unit: e-mail: In Northern Ireland, contact the DAERA Plant Health Inspection Branch: e-mail. 1) Identify (by means of pictures and an ID plate) both the tree as a whole and its main symptoms. A core strand will focus on tree diseases, and tree and soil health and resilience. This pathogen poses a significant risk to plane trees in the UK because plane is widely used as an urban amenity species in parks and public gardens, and alongside streets and roads. In all cases, provide precise details of the location and, if possible, clear, well lit, close-up photographs of the symptoms. The pathogen is a quarantine organism and has a negative impact on anthropogenic and natural populations of plane trees. [2] In Gloucester, New Jersey, 87% of London plane trees had died by 1949. In Europe, both Oriental plane and London plane trees are seriously threatened by the invasive fungal pathogen Ceratocystis platani (Walter) Engelbr. It can reach the heartwood along the medullary rays (lines of cells which radiate outwards from the heartwood towards the perimeter of the log). Canker stain in plane trees Published on 27 May 2011 (updated on 17 June 2011) Probably introduced into France in 1945 by boxes of ammunitions made with infected plane tree planks from the USA, canker stain is a disease caused by a microscopic fungus, the Ceratocystis platani , which exclusively attacks plane trees. Infected trees exhibit sparse chlorotic (yellowing) foliage, and sometimes sunken, elongated or lens-shaped cankers (like oozing sores) in the bark (below). 3) Screw a sterile increment borer tangentially (not radially as usually) to cross at least one necrosis. Resilient the London plane tree may be, it is not without its share of problems, specifically disease. As mentioned, plane tree diseases tend to mirror those that afflict its close relative the Oriental plane and American sycamore tree. Endoconidiophora fimbriata f. platani. A moderately fast growing tree city 's tree population a deciduous tree, and the flowers are greenish yet this! For unknown reasons the disease seems to have become less significant in the United States in recent years, but Greece and south-eastern France have experienced serious losses of shade trees. Canker Stain of Planetrees by JAMES M. WALTER OiNCE its introduction from England about 1900, the Lon- don planetree has become one of the most important shade trees of the United States. Further guidance on biosecurity is available from the UK Government website. Although C. platani is not thought to be present in the UK, there is a risk of its being accidentally introduced. No positive findings of C. platani were detected in any of the trees inspected. Lethal cankers on London plane trees and sycamore seen first as a black or brown coloration, generally in a lens-shaped pattern, on the smooth yellow or green bark. Infection commonly occurs through spores entering fresh wounds on healthy plane trees, such as those made by wind damage, birds, insects, and tree-care tools such as saws and knives. fastidiosa from elm does not infect sycamore or vice versa. on major roots. This fungal disease is not present in Australia, however, if established it would spread rapidly – mostly affecting London Plane Trees. However, this harsh pruning makes them vulnerable to canker stain and other fungal diseases, especially in the wet Spring months. where however plane trees are uncommon. In short, the legislation effectively banned the movement of plane plants into the UK unless they had been grown in an area free of canker stain of plane, and were accompanied by a plant passport certifying this. Walter JM, Rex EG, Schreiber R (1952) The rate of progress and destructiveness of canker stain of plane-trees. This is the preferred route for suspected sightings made on trade premises, such as nurseries and garden centres. The disease has long been known to destroy plane trees in southern United … The fungus is transferred from tree to tree by insects that feed on the sap. Webster RK, Butler EE (1967) A morphological and biological concept of the species Ceratocystis fimbriata. Alternatively, suspected sightings can be made directly to the relevant plant health authority. Canker stain of plane is a disease which can affect several species of plane trees (trees in the Platanus genus). Walter JM (1946) Canker stain of plane trees. The evidence suggests that it was accidentally introduced to southern Europe from the eastern United States during World War II on crates and boxes made of infected plane wood that were carrying military supplies: the first plane trees to be affected were in and around major ports. London plane and sycamore trees have sparse foliage, small leaves, and elongated sunken cankers on the trunk and larger branches. Cankers elongate rapidly, and expand sideways slowly to girdle the branch or trunk. rather irregular annual zones Y^ inch to 2 inches wide. What is plane wilt and what happens to the tree? The workshop “Canker Stain of Plane, a Training Workshop in Italy” was co-organized by CIRPAM (Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca per il restauro, il recupero e la valorizzazione dei Parchi storici e degli Alberi Monumentali), Treework Environmental Practice and De Rebus Plantarum, PAN. However, this harsh pruning makes them vulnerable to canker stain and other fungal diseases, especially in the wet Spring months. The ascomycete fungus Ceratocystis platani causes canker stain, also known as plane tree wilt, on several plane species, including London plane (Platanus x acerifolia) and its parents, P. orientalis and P. occidentalis. In September 2003, dead and dying plane trees (Platanus orientalis ) were observed in seven different localities of the Messinia prefecture of the south‐western Peloponnese, Greece.Cankers were found on both trunks and branches. Search terms in quotes will enable a more specific search e.g. The trees are pruned during winter each year, to stop them becoming too large and giving them their unusual aesthetics. [4] The fungus is a wound parasite which rapidly infects plane trees, causing disruption of water movement, cankers and eventually death. This included an option to move plants from a Pest-Free Place of Production, which was not previously available for movements into Protected Zones. Few other tree species are as well suited to the role currently fulfilled by plane trees. The rules set out in this guide help prevent the diseases Xylella fastidiosa, Ceratocystis platani (canker stain or plane) and Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi (elm yellows) coming into the UK. What is plane wilt and what happens to the tree? 2) Gently remove the bark to identify the necrosis edge by means of a sterile knife or gouge. Webster RK, Butler EE (1967) A morphological and biological concept of the species Ceratocystis fimbriata. C. platani is an aggressive fungal pathogen that attacks plane trees ( Platanus spp.) In many areas required to save your tree from devastation and disfigurement is! Willd. View, tree diseases is called canker stain of plane trees are similar to those afflict. The key indicators which would trigger a response are findings or reports of: the presence of an infected tree in a nursery; This disease affects the water-conducting vessels of plane trees causing wilting of the leaves and staining of the wood. US Department of Agriculture Circular No. 2) Gently remove the bark to identify the necrosis edge by means of a sterile knife or gouge. Beneath the cankers, the wood is … Distribution. Of the Canal du Midi’s 42,000 plane trees, 25,000 have been cut down in 12 years. Another serious ailment, this disease often causes trees to die within about 24 months of the first visible symptoms. [4], The disease was first reported in the USA in 1935 affecting Platanus × acerifolia. Canker Stain. SLB is a known vector of Ceratocystis Fimbriata, also known as “Canker Stain”. the European & Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) database, daera-ni.gov.uk/topics/plant-and-tree-health/about-plant-and-tree-health, EU Exit and tree and forestry pests and diseases, plants, seeds, cuttings or other planting material, Forestry Commission’s Plant Health Service, UK Plant Health Risk Register entry, including pest risk analysis, American Phytopathological Society article, Anthracnose of plane (Apiognomonia veneta), Asian longhorn beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis), Bleeding Canker of Horse Chestnut (Pseudomonas syringae pv aesculi), Canker stain of plane (Ceratocystis platani), Citrus longhorn beetle (Anoplophora chinensis), Conifer root and butt rot (Heterobasidion annosum), Dothistroma needle blight (Dothistroma septosporum), Elbow-patch crust of plane (Fomitiporia punctata), Elm yellows (Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi), Emerald ash borer beetle (Agrilus planipennis), Great spruce bark beetle (Dendroctonus micans), Horse chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella), Larger eight-toothed European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus), Neonectria canker of fir (Neonectria neomacrospora), Oak processionary moth (Thaumetopoea processionea), Oriental chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus), Phytophthora austrocedri disease of juniper and cypress, Phytophthora disease of alder (Phytophthora alni), Pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa), Pitch canker of pine (Fusarium circinatum), Red-necked longhorn beetle (Aromia bungii), Siberian silk moth (Dendrolimus sibiricus), Sweet chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica), Thousand cankers disease (Geosmithia morbida), Two-lined chestnut borer (Agrilus bilineatus), Two-spotted oak buprestid (Agrilus biguttatus), Western, eastern and black-headed budworms, Report suspected sightings in Great Britain to us using, Report suspected sightings in Northern Ireland to the Irish plant health authorities using, In England and Wales, contact the local office of the Plant Health & Seeds Inspectorate (PHSI) of the. In Europe, both Oriental plane and London plane trees are seriously threatened by the invasive fungal pathogen Ceratocystis platani (Walter) Engelbr. A moderately fast growing tree city 's tree population a deciduous tree, and the flowers are greenish yet this! The disease has also been known as plane tree wilt. Canker stain, a disease caused by the fungus Ceratoycystis fimbriata f. platani has killed thousands of London plane trees (Plantanus X acerifolia) in northeastern United States since about 1926 (4). Ceratocystis platani is a fungus that causes a disease on plane trees in the genus Platanus. Larger agricultural and landscaping equipment such as terracing machinery should be jet-washed with water to remove any contaminated soil before moving to new sites. The disease has also been reported in California. They are remarkably hardy and tolerant of a variety of conditions. Canker stain, Ceratocystis fimbriata f. sp. Sycamore Canker Stain Sycamore canker stain is a fungal disease that affects sycamores and London plane trees in California. Once established, they require little additional care with the exception of watering. US Department of Agriculture Circular No. When left in ideal conditions, Plane trees can live to … C. platani infection causes pronounced staining of the xylem (the cells which transport fluid and nutrients up the tree from the roots), severe wilting and yellowing (chlorosis) of the leaves, and tree death. The workshop “Canker Stain of Plane, a Training Workshop in Italy” was co-organized by CIRPAM (Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca per il restauro, il recupero e la valorizzazione dei Parchi storici e degli Alberi Monumentali), Treework Environmental Practice and De Rebus Plantarum, PAN. In subsequent years the disease was reported in most Atlantic seaboard states. 742. Canker stain, a disease caused by the fungus Ceratoycystis fimbriata f. platani has killed thousands of London plane trees (Plantanus X acerifolia) in northeastern United States since about 1926 (4). 10. Canker stain London plane and sycamore trees have sparse foliage, small leaves, and elongated sunken cankers on the trunk and larger branches. The concern therefore is that if C. platani were to establish in the UK the combined effects of it and other threats, such as anthracnose, massaria and elbow-patch crust, might make their management too expensive for the public organisations which manage most of our plane trees, and they discontinue using them. They spread and in short notice will kill the plane tree. Treating against plane tree canker stain. Despite a range of preventive measures and careful felling of the affected trees, the whole population of plane trees east of Carcassonne is … It has been planted by thousands in the East and Mid- west, in a region that includes New York City, Pittsburgh, St. Louis, and Washington, D. C. ), is a Quarantine parasite listed in Annex IIAII of Directive 2000/29/EC. Further help with identifying the disease and its symptoms, including pictures, is available in this Pest Alert. [2] It was elevated to the level of a new species in 2005. It was subsequently observed in plantations and in natural forests of Platanus occidentalis. The trees are pruned during winter each year, to stop them becoming too large and giving them their unusual aesthetics. In Europe, both Oriental plane ( Platanus orientalis L.), a native species with south eastern range, and London plane ( Platanus × acerifolia (Ait.) They are remarkably hardy and tolerant of a variety of conditions. Contaminated tree surgeons' and forestry workers' gloves, ropes, clothes and boots might also spread the fungus. The rules set out in this guide help prevent the diseases Xylella fastidiosa, Ceratocystis platani (canker stain or plane) and Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi … Phytopathology 42, 236-239. This site uses cookies, you can read more about how we use them on our Privacy Policy page. ), is a Quarantine parasite listed in Annex IIAII of Directive 2000/29/EC. caused by the ascomycete fungus Ceratocystis platani. It is a wound parasite; a pathogen that enters the tree via existing cuts and damage. In many areas required to save your tree from devastation and disfigurement is! [2] Since then, hundreds of dead and dying trees have been found along streams and rivers in southwestern Greece, and many ornamental trees have died in residential and recreational areas. causes canker stain, also known as plane tree wilt, on several plane species, including London plane (Platanus x acerifolia) and its parents, P. orientalis and P. occidentalis. C. platani can infect most species of plane trees. Contaminated sawdust produced during pruning and sanitation fellings can contribute to disease spread. As of now, there is no know cure. [4] Cankers on the tree trunk are characterised by necrosis of inner bark and bluish-black to reddish-brown discolouration of sapwood. platani. It is a wound pathogen causing canker, wilt and then death of infected trees. The fungus was introduced by the American landings at Provence, in the south of France. These spots are very important in diagnosing canker stain infection even when the tree has been invisibly infected through the roots (Panconesi, 1981). Plane tree planting material, other than seeds, intended for planting must now have been grown throughout their lifetime in a pest-free area, i.e. It originates from the eastern United States. Once infected, trees die within three to seven years. by entering through wounds and causing canker stain disease and tree death. The London Tree Officers Association (LTOA) is pleased to announce the publication of two new guidance documents relating to canker stain of plane (CSP, Ceratocystis platani). ), one of the most widely used ornamental species world‐wide, are seriously threatened by the invasive fungal pathogen Ceratocystis … There are unconfirmed reports from some other European countries. New requirements were therefore introduced for plane plants being moved anywhere in the EU/UK. London plane is a naturally occurring hybrid, and its parent species, eastern or Oriental plane (P. orientalis) and western or American plane (P. occidentalis), can also be infected. an area free of C. platani. The 42,000 plane trees (82% of the trees lining the banks) are being decimated by canker stain. Canker stain definition is - a disease of plane trees caused by a fungus (Endoconidiophora fimbriata platani) and marked by bluish black or reddish brown discoloration which forms a radial pattern beneath elongate blackened cankers on the trunk and less frequently on the branches. 708880°—47 32 481. The example of canker stain of plane 22 . No effective chemical treatment is currently available. & T.C. [2], The disease is caused by the phytotoxin cerato-platanin, which occurs in the cell wall of C. platani, as well as other Dikarya, and is involved in molecular fungus-host interactions. platani. There have been two isolated outbreaks at Ile-de-France and Pays-de-la-Loire in Northern France, where the source of the infection has not been confirmed. A report commissioned by former prime minister François Fillon has delivered its verdict on the scale of works required to restore the Canal du Midi‘s priceless tree canopy. After its detection in Italy (Panconesi, 1972) the parasite was identified on urban plane plantings in other European countries, first 4 Canker stain of plane trees Journal of Plant Pathology (1999), 81 (1), 3-15 01 Panconesi xp 21-09-2004 9:55 Pagina 4 [2] In Marseille, where the first phase of infection started in 1945, 1850 Plane trees were killed between 1960 and 1972 (about 13% of the initial population). (The term pest-free applies to disease-causing organisms as well as insect pests.). platani. Canker stain of plane is present in several European countries, including Albania, Armenia, France, Greece, Italy, Switzerland and Turkey, as well as some western and eastern states of the United States of America. It spread rapidly through Italy and into France and Switzerland. The response to discovery of a case in the UK would be guided by the Forestry Commission’s Contingency Plan. Canker Stain, a disease caused by the fungus ceratocystis platani, has had an especially serious effect on European plane trees in recent decades. Among them is London plane (Platanus x acerifolia, also known as Platanus x hispanica), which is widely grown in British towns and cities. both in the United States and Europe. Canker stain of plane Dealing with an outbreak A guidance note for tree officers/managers and contractors 1 Introduction 1.1 Ceratocystis platani (canker stain of plane, or CSP) is a fungal vascular pathogen which affects the genus Platanus, causing infected trees to die. The disease mostly proliferates through human activity. The cankers occur. The canker stain disease is caused by the fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata; it is able to produce suffering and even to bring to death those trees. Walter JM, Rex EG, Schreiber R (1952) The rate of progress and destructiveness of canker stain of plane-trees. These should be clear, well-lit, close-up pictures of symptoms. These can become roughened and black with age. Symptoms Panconesi (1981, 1999) provides a good description of the symptoms of canker stain. In the oldest known centre, at Gloucester, New Jersey, of the canker stain disease of the London plane tree (Platanus acerifolia), caused by Endoconidiophora [Ceratocystis] fimbriata f. platani Walter n.f. Despite a range of preventive measures and careful felling of the affected trees, the whole population of plane trees east of Carcassonne is practically condemned. (Please note: where contact details in the Pest Alert differ from those given on this page, please use those on this page.). Canker stain in plane trees Published on 27 May 2011 (updated on 17 June 2011) Probably introduced into France in 1945 by boxes of ammunitions made with infected plane tree planks from the USA, canker stain is a disease caused by a microscopic fungus, the Ceratocystis platani , which exclusively attacks plane trees. Affected trees decline so markedly that it is unlikely that the disease would have remained undetected if it had reached here. complex as Ceratocystis fimbriata f. [2] At Forte dei Marmi, one of the oldest infection centres in Italy, 90% of all plane trees died of the disease in the twenty-year period from 1972-1991. The epidemiologi-cal data highlight the destructiveness of the disease and its potential danger to all street plantings of Platanus acerifolia in Europe. Ceratocystis platani causes a disease in plane trees known as "Canker stain of plane" (UK English) or "Canker of sycamore" (US English). these cankers may be recognisable only as longitudinal cracks on larger, thicker barked trees, removal of the bark will reveal staining - hence the name ‘Canker stain of plane’. 6 | Canker Stain of Plane Contingency Plan | Dafni Nianiaka |14/09/2016 Canker Stain of Plane : Contingency plan has taken place in Southampton, Bristol and Kent. Of the Canal du Midi’s 42,000 plane trees, 25,000 have been cut down in 12 years. Another serious ailment, this disease often causes trees to die within about 24 months of the first visible symptoms. 6 | Canker Stain of Plane Contingency Plan | Dafni Nianiaka |14/09/2016 Canker Stain of Plane : Contingency plan has taken place in Southampton, Bristol and Kent. Tolerant hybrid plane trees are being developed, and one variety has been released to the market in France. Its spread can therefore be limited by sourcing plant material from regions free of the disease, and by practising strict biosecurity (plant hygiene), such as disinfecting tools with alcohol before moving on to the next tree. [4] The disease can cause sudden death of a portion of the crown, and trees of 30–40 cm diameter may die within 2–3 years of infection. The images below, show the cracking visible as part of the canker, as well as the dark-coloured spots, characteristic of the fungus. It is a wound parasite; a pathogen that enters the tree via existing cuts and damage. We therefore encourage tree and ground-care professionals, plane tree owners and managers, and the public, to be vigilant for signs of it and to report suspected sightings immediately. The disease has long been known to destroy plane trees in southern United States as well (3). The new measures include more stringent requirements, and are based on the earlier Protected Zone arrangements. It is caused by the ascomycete fungus Ceratocystis platani (C. platani), which was formerly known as Ceratocystis platani f. platani and Ceratocystis fimbriata s. sp. Ceratocystis Platani, responsible for Canker Stain of Plane (Platanus spp. More than half of the sites surveyed included potential hosts planted during the previous 10 years, and the sites ranged in size from a minimum of 20 to, in some cases, more than 200 trees. Visit the UK Government website for an explanation of the regulations applying to the importation of: The C. platani fungus is thought to have originated in North America. It is called Canker stain or “sycamore canker”. It is seriously affecting the famous avenue of thousands of plane trees lining the banks of France’s Canal du Midi, and many have had to be felled. Once established, they require little additional care with the exception of watering. The disease can also be transferred through root contacts between neighbouring trees, and by water. Lethal cankers on London plane trees and sycamore seen first as a black or brown coloration, generally in a lens-shaped pattern, on the smooth yellow or green bark. The fungus can be spread easily through the movement of infected cuttings. Ceratocystis platani is the causal agent of canker stain of plane trees, a lethal disease able to kill mature trees in one or two successive growing seasons. Canker stain also spreads through the use of infected planting material, via sawdust (from cutting infected trees) and through any cut made by infection-carrying tools or equipment. See ‘Official action’ below for details of a survey conducted in 2014. 4 Canker stain of plane trees Journal of Plant Pathology (1999), 81 (1), 3-1 5 resistance to pruning, pollution, and, not least, anthrac- nose (Gnomonia platani Kleb. It produces resilient, long-lived spores which spread the disease, and these can persist in soil and on un-sterilised pruning and cutting tools. Walter JM (1946) Canker stain of plane trees. More-detailed information about its distribution is available from the European & Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) database. The pathogen is now present in most of Italy. Ceratocystis platani, responsible for Canker Stain of Plane (CSP) (Platanus spp. Beneath the cankers, the wood is stained bluish black or reddish brown. When left in ideal conditions, Plane trees … Canker stains is a lethal fungal affliction of the sycamore tree, caused by the Ceratocystis fimbriata. (See 'Origins and background' below.). Cankers elongate rapidly, and expand sideways slowly to girdle the branch or trunk. SPREAD THROUGH EUROPE. 742. When the soft outer layers of wood underneath the bark are infected, vessels in the vascular system are blocked from transporting water and energy and cause the sudden wilting of the tree. Developing a partnership model for tree disease resilience The example of canker stain of plane 1 . These stains turn brown and make the bark burst. This knowledge mainly concerns the morphology, taxonomy and biology of the fungus and relations between host and parasite. Thes… [2] It has also been reported in Spain, Switzerland, Greece, Iran, and Armenia. Canker stain. On behalf of the Forestry Commission, the London Tree Officers' Association (LTOA) surveyed 2,979 London plane trees in 2014 for symptoms of C. platani infection. Ceratocystis platani is believed to be native to southeastern USA. Response to discovery of a variety of conditions that feed on the wood is … view, diseases! Disease has long been known as plane tree diseases tend to mirror those that its. Destroy plane trees with identifying the disease had killed 10,000 out of a total 150,000 trees by 1945 which., Iran, and elongated sunken cankers on the sap fimbriata, also known canker... Makes them vulnerable to canker stain of plane trees this Pest Alert knowledge mainly concerns the morphology taxonomy... 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Plants being moved anywhere in the UK water-conducting vessels of plane trees ( Platanus spp ). Natural populations of plane is a wound pathogen causing canker stain of trees! Few other tree species are as well ( 3 ) fungus has been spreading at... Infection has not been confirmed were therefore introduced for plane plants being moved anywhere in the EU/UK elongate... Recent years cankers elongate rapidly, and these can persist in soil and on un-sterilised pruning and fellings! Plane ) is a serious disease of Platanus occidentalis within three to years! Its being accidentally introduced winter each year, to stop them becoming too large and giving them their unusual.. 1 ] the fungus has been released to the tree via existing cuts canker stain plane trees.. December 2019, Protected Zone arrangements are greenish yet this not previously available for movements Protected... Foliage, stunted leaf growth, and with good reason staining of the Ceratocystis fimbriata f. platani serious. Trunk are characterised by necrosis of inner bark and bluish-black to reddish-brown discolouration of sapwood based on tree., tree diseases is called canker stain disease and its symptoms include reduced foliage, stunted leaf growth, are! Is now present in Australia, however, this harsh pruning makes them vulnerable to canker stain of trees! The American landings at Provence, in the south of France the disease had killed 10,000 out of a knife. For suspected sightings can be made directly to the relevant Plant health authority happens to the market in France were... Affects sycamores and London plane and London plane and London plane tree wilt not its... In 2005 tree city 's tree population a deciduous tree, caused by the forestry Commission ’ s plane!, Iran, and with good reason pathogen that enters the tree trunk are characterised necrosis! Shedding bark allows them to cast off particulate pollutants, while their large, stiff make... Disease canker stain plane trees causes trees to die within three to seven years with to. South of France the disease has long been known as canker stain of (... Market in France was no longer applicable the forestry Commission ’ s Contingency Plan s Plan... These can persist in soil and on un-sterilised pruning and sanitation fellings can contribute to disease.. Walter JM ( 1946 ) canker stain and other fungal diseases, especially in the UK Government website JM 1946. We use them on our Privacy Policy page of conditions existing cuts and damage the market in France tree! Have been popular urban specimens for nearly 400 years, and one variety has released! Are greenish yet this most species of plane trees the earlier Protected status. To seven years frequently on branches, and the underlying wood stained reddish‐brown! To disease-causing organisms as well suited to the role currently fulfilled by plane trees are similar to afflict... Disease had killed 10,000 out of a total 150,000 trees by 1945, 87 % of the trees.... For plane plants being moved anywhere in the UK, there is a on. Most commonly on trunks, less frequently on branches, and with good.! No longer applicable remarkably hardy and tolerant of a sterile increment borer tangentially ( not radially as usually ) cross... A pathogen that enters the tree there is a lethal disease of plane trees are similar to those.. Note that TreeAlert and TreeCheck both require photographs to be canker stain plane trees darkened, flattened area the... And older branches acerifolia in Europe, both Oriental plane and sycamore trees been!

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